The Evolution of Education in Modern India

India, the land of gurus and shishyas is well known for the relationship between the teacher and the student. The education system has evolved in various aspects since ancient times. The gurukul system of education, where the teacher and the students lived together in a faraway place has been an integral part of ancient India. The student’s main objective was to serve the guru and his family in return of the wisdom attained by his guru. The guru in return helpsthe disciples in developing them physically, mentally, emotionally and spiritually. But this type of education had a disadvantage; it was only confined to the high class society.


The scenario of education system changed during the British rule, where new subjects were introduced and also encouraged girl child education. Famous personalities like Rabindranath Tagore, Vivekananda, Raja Ram Mohan Roy and many others encouraged the masses to accept the universality of education, which means that education is for everyone and that, education is the sole objective for the development of the nation.


Later on, when India got its independence from the British colonial rule, the modern education system gradually evolved. The Indian education system at the school level has five levels namely, pre-primary, which is the Montessori, play schools, lower kindergarten to upper kindergarten mostly for children of the age groups of three to six years. Primary school, which range from classes one to five, the most common subjects taught are Mathematics, English, Life science and others. Children from five to twelve years of age attend primary school. Then there is the middle school comprising of three to four years of education in classes six to eight consisting of students of age group twelve to fourteen.

The second last stage in education system at the school level is the secondary school. Two to three years of education in class eight to ten consisting of students between the age group of fourteen to sixteen years. The last stage in this system is the higher secondary stage. Only two years of education in classes eleven and twelve. This stage completes the education system.

modern education

Many children in India don’t get the opportunity to attend school because of various reasons. They work in small shops in order to earn some money or their parents can’t afford to get their children into private schools. For this reason the state governments in the country are setting up or have already set up free schools till the primary or middle school level, with the midday meal program in order to attract more children to join these free schools.

As the modern education has many advantages on the contrary it has quite a few de-merits. Many educational institutions have installed state of the art facilities like smart classes or smart boards where the chalk and talk process has lost its touch.


This is just an over view of the education system at the school level. We see how the education system evolved from the early ages of the gurukuls to the modern era of school system. The Indian education system is more about exams, marks and how well you can learn subjects. Less emphasis is given on the overall developments of the children unlike the western education system, where it’s more of making the students ready for the world. Education should not just be about marks, degrees and certificates; it should be a platform for learning and the development of every child.


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